A bone tamp for creating channels within bone tissue. The bone tamp includes an elongated member that is deformable from a first generally non-linear configuration to a second generally linear configuration for insertion into bone tissue. As the elongated member is deployed into bone tissue, it transitions from the linear configuration into the non-linear configuration within the bone tissue. The elongated member is capable of being deformed back into the generally linear configuration for withdrawal from the bone tissue.

Patent
   8366773
Priority
Aug 16 2005
Filed
Jan 25 2008
Issued
Feb 05 2013
Expiry
Dec 10 2029
Extension
1213 days
Assg.orig
Entity
Small
20
799
currently ok
6. A method of treating bone tissue employing an elongated bone tamp having an initial generally curved configuration extending in a coiled direction, the method comprising:
applying an external force to change the shape of the bone tamp into a deployment configuration;
inserting the bone tamp in the deployment configuration into bone tissue;
removing the external force from the bone tamp as the bone tamp is inserted into the bone tissue, thereby allowing the bone tamp to substantially return to the initial generally curved configuration extending in a generally coiled direction as the bone tamp transverses through bone tissue;
withdrawing the bone tamp from the bone tissue, thereby leaving a channel within the bone tissue; and
injecting bone cement into the channel within bone tissue.
1. A bone tamp system for creating channels within bone tissue, comprising:
an elongated bone tamp for insertion into and withdrawal from bone tissue, the bone tamp having an initial generally curved configuration extending in a generally coiled direction, the bone tamp being deformable into a more generally linear configuration for insertion of the bone tamp into bone tissue, the bone tamp being adapted to transition back into the initial generally curved configuration extending in a generally coiled direction as the bone tamp is inserted into the bone tissue, and the bone tamp being deformable into the more generally linear configuration for withdrawal from the bone tissue, thereby leaving a channel within the bone tissue;
a bone cement injection device for injecting bone cement into the channel within the bone tissue; and
an amount of bone cement.
15. A method of interdigitating bone cement and bone tissue employing a bone tamp that is movable between a generally linear configuration when constrained by an external force and a curved configuration extending in a generally coiled direction upon release of the external force, the method comprising:
inserting the bone tamp constrained in the generally linear configuration into bone tissue;
removing the external force from the bone tamp as the bone tamp is inserted through the bone tissue, thereby allowing the bone tamp to substantially transform into a generally curved configuration extending in a generally coiled direction as the bone tamp transverses through the bone tissue;
withdrawing the bone tamp from the bone tissue, thereby leaving a channel within the bone tissue; and
injecting bone cement into the channel to interdigitate the bone cement and bone tissue.
2. The device of claim 1 in which the bone tamp is made of a shape memory material.
3. The device of claim 1 in which the bone tamp is adapted to be inserted into the bone tissue through a cannula.
4. The device of claim 1 in which the generally curved configuration comprises the bone tamp extending in a generally helical direction.
5. The device of claim 1 in which the bone tamp defines a resident volume when in the initial curved configuration.
7. The method of claim 6 in which the generally curved configuration of the bone tamp comprises extending in a generally helical direction.
8. The method of claim 6 in which the deployment configuration comprises a substantially linear configuration.
9. The method of claim 6 in which the bone tamp comprises a shape memory material.
10. The method of claim 6 in which inserting the bone tamp into bone tissue comprises inserting the bone tamp into bone tissue through a cannula.
11. The method of claim 10 in which applying external force comprises inserting the bone tamp into the cannula and removing the external force comprises extending the bone tamp out of the cannula.
12. The method of claim 11 including extending a desired portion of the bone tamp out of the cannula.
13. The method of claim 6 in which inserting the bone tamp into bone tissue comprises inserting the bone tamp into cancellous bone tissue.
14. The method of claim 6 further comprising traversing the bone tamp through the bone tissue to create a generally helical or cylindrical shaped channel within the bone tissue.
16. The method of claim 15 in which inserting the constrained bone tamp comprises inserting the bone tamp into bone tissue through a cannula, wherein the cannula constrains the bone tamp in the generally linear configuration.
17. The method of claim 16 in which removing the external force comprises extending the bone tamp out of the cannula.
18. The method of claim 17 including extending a desired portion of the bone tamp out of the cannula.
19. The method of claim 15 in which the bone tamp extends more than 360 degrees when in the curved configuration.
20. The method of claim 15 in which providing the bone tamp comprises providing a shape memory material.
21. The method of claim 15 in which inserting the bone tamp into bone tissue comprises inserting the bone tamp into cancellous bone tissue.
22. The method of claim 15 further comprising traversing the bone tamp through the bone tissue to create a generally helical or cylindrical shaped channel within the bone tissue.

The present application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/464,782 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,785,368, a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/464,790 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,666,226, a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/464,793 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,666,227, a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/464,807, a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/464,812 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,670,374 and a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/464,815 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,670,375, all of which were filed on Aug. 15, 2006 and claim the benefit of Provisional Patent Application No. 60/708,691, filed Aug. 16, 2005, U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/738,432, filed Nov. 21, 2005 and U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/784,185, filed Mar. 21, 2006, all of the above are incorporated herein by reference. The present patent application also claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/886,838, filed Jan. 26, 2007, U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/890,868, filed Feb. 21, 2007, and U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/936,974, filed Jun. 22, 2007, all of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference.

The present disclosure generally relates to apparatus and methods for the treatment of bone conditions and, more particularly, to apparatus and methods for forming passageways within bone tissue, such as bone tamps, and interdigitating bone filler material with bone tissue.

Bones or portions of bones often comprise an outer relatively hard layer referred to as cortical bone and inner material referred to as cancellous bone. A variety of physical conditions can cause cancellous bone to become diseased or weakened. Such conditions can include, for example, osteoporosis, avascular necrosis, cancer or trauma. Weakened cancellous bone can result in an increased risk of fracture of the cortical bone surrounding the cancellous bone, because the diseased or weakened cancellous bone provides less support to the exterior cortical bone than healthy cancellous bone.

One common condition that is caused by diseased or damaged cancellous bone is vertebral compression fractures. A vertebral compression fracture is a crushing or collapsing injury to one or more vertebrae. One of the leading causes, but not an exclusive cause, of vertebral compression fractures is osteoporosis. Osteoporosis reduces bone density, thereby weakening bones and predisposing them to fracture. The osteoporosis-weakened vertebrae can collapse during normal activity and are also more vulnerable to injury from shock or other forces acting on the spine. In severe cases of osteoporosis, actions as simple as bending can be enough to cause a vertebral compression fracture.

While the vertebral compression fractures may heal without intervention, the crushed bone may fail to heal adequately. Moreover, if the bones are allowed to heal on their own, the spine may be deformed to the extent the vertebrae were compressed by the fracture. Spinal deformity may lead to other adverse conditions, such as, breathing and gastrointestinal complications, and adverse physical effect on adjacent vertebrae.

Minimally invasive surgical techniques for treating vertebral compression fractures are becoming more and more common. One such technique used to treat vertebral compression fractures is injection of bone filler material into the fractured vertebral body. This procedure is commonly referred to as percutaneous vertebroplasty. More specifically, vertebroplasty involves inserting an inject needle into bone material in the vertebra and injecting bone filler material (for example, bone cement, allograph material or autograph material) into the collapsed vertebra to stabilize and strengthen the crushed bone.

Another type of treatment for vertebral compression fractures is known as Kyphoplasty. Kyphoplasty is a modified vertebroplasty treatment that uses one or two balloons, introduced into the vertebra. First a cannula or other device is inserted into the vertebra. The cannula may have one or more balloons associated with it or another device may be inserted with balloons. As the balloons are inflated, the balloons push the cancellous bone outwardly, crushing or compacting the cancellous bone to create a cavity, which significantly alters the natural structure of the cancellous bone. The balloons are then deflated and removed, leaving a cavity. Bone cement is injected into the cavity to stabilize the fracture.

The present disclosure relates to apparatus and methods that are employed to treat bone tissue, such as cancellous bone tissue. More particularly, the present disclosure relates to a bone tamp and methods of use thereof that can be employed to create one or more passageway channels within bone tissue for any number of bone treatment procedures. For example, the bone tamp can be employed to created a channel or pathway in cancellous bone tissue of a vertebral body in a vertebroplasty-type procedure.

One aspect of the present disclosure relates to apparatus for forming channels in bone tissue. The apparatus includes an elongated member adapted for being deployed into and withdrawn from bone tissue. The elongated member is deformable from an original or as-made generally non-linear configuration into a modified or ready generally linear configuration for insertion of the elongated member into bone tissue. As the elongated member is inserted into the bone tissue, the elongated member returns or transitions, in one embodiment by self-forming, back into the original or as-made generally non-linear configuration within the bone tissue. The elongated member is also deformable into a generally linear configuration for withdrawal from the bone tissue.

Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method for creating a passageway channel within bone tissue. The method includes providing an elongated member having a generally non-linear configuration and applying an external force to change the shape of the elongated member into a more linear configuration. While in the more-linear configuration, the elongated member is inserted into bone tissue and the external force is removed to allow the elongated member to substantially return to the generally non-linear configuration. After insertion into bone tissue, the elongated member may be withdrawn from the bone tissue to create a passageway or channel within the bone tissue.

A further aspect of the present disclosure relates to a method of interdigitating bone filler material and bone tissue. The method includes providing an elongated member which is constrained in a generally linear configuration, and which member is biased to form a non-linear configuration when the constraint is removed. While in the generally linear configuration, the elongate member is inserted into bone tissue and the constraint is removed from the elongated member to allow the elongated member to assume the generally non-linear configuration within the bone tissue. The elongated member may thereafter be withdrawn from the bone tissue, thereby creating a passageway or channel within the bone tissue. After the channel has been created, bone filler material, such as PMMA, bone paste, bone cement, allograph, autograph or any other suitable flowable material, is injected into the channel to interdigitate the flowable material with the bone tissue.

In the course of this description, reference will be made to the accompanying drawings, wherein:

FIG. 1 is a partial side view of a normal human vertebral column;

FIG. 2 is comparable to FIG. 1, depicting a vertebral compression fracture in one of the vertebral bodies;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of one embodiment of a bone tamp of the present disclosure, shown in a helical or coiled configuration;

FIG. 4 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the bone tamp of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a deployment cannula, shown with a bone tamp of the present disclosure in a generally linear configuration within the cannula for deployment;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of the deployment cannula of FIG. 5, shown with the bone tamp partially ejected from the deployment cannula and in a deployed configuration;

FIG. 7 is top a perspective view of a vertebra having portions broken away to show the distal end of a deployment cannula inserted within the vertebral body;

FIG. 8 is a top perspective view of the vertebra of FIG. 7 having portions broken away to show a bone tamp partially extending out of the distal end of the deployment cannula and deployed within the cancellous bone of the vertebral body;

FIG. 9 is a top perspective view of the vertebra of FIG. 8 having portions broken away to show the bone tamp fully deployed within the cancellous bone of the vertebral body;

FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view of the vertebra of FIG. 9, showing the bone tamp fully deployed;

FIG. 11 is a top perspective view of the vertebra of FIG. 9, shown after the bone tamp has been withdrawn from the vertebral body, portions of the vertebral body have been broken away to show the passageway or channel created within the cancellous bone of the vertebral body;

FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view of the vertebra of FIG. 11;

FIG. 13 is a top cross-sectional view of the vertebra of FIG. 11 shown after the channel has been formed and having a bone filler material injection needle inserted into the channel within the cancellous bone; and

FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view of the vertebra of FIG. 12 shown with bone filler material within the channel and interdigitating with the cancellous bone.

Although detailed embodiments of the present subject matter are disclosed herein, it is to be understood that the disclosed embodiments are merely exemplary, and the subject matter may be embodied in various forms. Therefore, specific details disclosed herein are not to be interpreted as limiting the subject matter claimed, but merely as examples to illustrate and describe the subject matter and various aspects thereof.

As pointed out earlier, the present disclosure pertains to apparatus and methods for forming passageways or channels in bone tissue and interdigitating bone filler material with bone tissue. The apparatus and methods will be described by way of example, but not limitation, in relation to procedures within the vertebral body. The apparatus and methods may be used to treat bone tissue in other areas of the body as well. Moreover, although the bone tamp described herein will be described by way of example, but not limitation, in conjunction with methods for interdigitating bone filler material, the bone tamp and methods of use thereof also can be used to create passageways or channels in bone tissue for virtually any purpose or procedure where such passageways or channels are desired.

FIG. 1 illustrates a section of a healthy vertebral (spinal) column, generally designated as 10, free of injury. The vertebral column 10 includes adjacent vertebrae 12a, 12b and 12c and intervertebral disks 14a, 14b, 14c and 14d separating adjacent vertebrae. The vertebrae, generally designated as 12, include a vertebral body 16 that is roughly cylindrically shaped and comprised of spongy inner cancellous bone surrounded by compact bone (referred to as the cortical rim). The body 16 of the vertebra is capped at the top by a superior endplate and at the bottom by an inferior endplate made of a cartilaginous layer. On either side of the vertebral body 16 are the pedicles 18, which lead to the spinal process 20. Other elements of the vertebra include the transverse process 22, the superior articular process 24 and the inferior articular process 26.

In vertebral compression fractures the vertebral body may be fractured from impact (even if healthy) or suffer fractures that result from weakening of the cortical rim such as from osteoporosis. When weakened by osteoporosis, the vertebra is increasingly subject to fracture due to routine forces from standing, bending or lifting.

FIG. 2 illustrates a damaged vertebral column, generally designated as 28, with a vertebral body 30 of a vertebra 32 suffering from a compression fracture 34. The vertebral body 30 suffering from the compression fraction 34 becomes typically wedge shaped and reduces the height of both the vertebra 32 and vertebral column 28 on the anterior (or front) side. As a result, this reduction of height can affect the normal curvature of the vertebral column 28. If left untreated, the vertebral body may further collapse and fracture causing additional pain and complications.

Turning now to a detailed description of illustrated embodiments described herein. The apparatus or device of the present disclosure, falls generally into the class of medical devices known as bone tamps osteotome. Bone tamps per se are not new, and the term generally refers to a device with an elongated shaft for insertion into bone. Such bone tamps were known long before the development of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. The present subject matter is referred to as a bone tamp because it is inserted into bone tissue, forming a passageway or channel therethrough by reason of its insertion, just as bone tamps have done since their early development.

FIG. 3 shows a perspective view of one embodiment of the present bone tamp 36 in its initial or original, as-manufactured configuration, and FIG. 4 shows a vertical cross-sectional view of bone tamp 36. In this embodiment, bone tamp 36 is comprised of an elongated member 38, such as a shaft, thread or ribbon, having a rectangular cross-section. In other embodiments, elongated member 38 can have a variety of cross-sectional shapes and profiles, such as round or other simple or complex geometric profiles.

In this initial configuration, bone tamp 36 has a generally helical or coiled configuration. The pitch of the helical configuration can vary depending on the desired application. In other words, the spacing between each winding 40 can vary. In the embodiment shown, the helical configuration has a tight pitch and each turn or winding 40a is wound on top of the previous winding 40b to form a plurality of stacked windings with little or no spacing between each winding. In its initial configuration, bone tamp 36 includes or defines an innerspace or resident volume 42. As used herein, “resident volume” is intended to refer generally to a structural characteristic of bone tamp 36 in its helical configuration in that the bone tamp has a structure that generally defines a resident volume. The resident volume 42 is not necessarily a volume completely enclosed by bone tamp 36 and can be any volume generally defined by the bone tamp. The resident volume is not necessarily empty and can contain material, such as cancellous bone.

Bone tamp 36 can be comprised of any suitable material, but preferably comprises a shape memory material. The shape memory material can be any suitable material, the shape of which can be changed upon application of external force, and which substantially returns to its initial shape upon remove of the external force. Such shape memory materials can include, for example, Nitinol (NiTi) or other suitable alloy (Cu—Al—Ni, Ti—Nb—Al, Au—Cd, etc.) or a shape memory polymer. Bone tamp 36 can be formed into the initial or original helical configuration by any suitable method know in the art, such as the method described in co-owned U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/464,782, which is incorporated by reference above.

FIGS. 5 and 6 are perspective views generally showing the deployment of bone tamp 36 through a deployment cannula 44. Bone tamp 36 is first formed into the initial or original helical or coil shape seen in FIG. 3. Referring to FIG. 5, bone tamp 36 (partially shown in phantom) can be unwound or drawn or forced into a substantially linear or deployment configuration by insertion into a lumen 50 of deployment cannula 44 for delivery. Cannula 44 constrains or otherwise exerts an external force on bone tamp 36 to deform and retain bone tamp 36 in a generally straight configuration as the bone tamp is passed into the cannula. The modified or deployment ready shape of bone tamp 36 is substantially linear, in that the shape can be perfectly straight or the shape could include slight bends or zigzags within the cannula.

Upon exiting opening 46 in a distal end portion 48 of cannula 44, the external force is removed from bone tamp 36 and the bone tamp, by change of configuration, returns to its initial or original shape, or nearly so, as illustrated in FIG. 6. As shown in the partially exited position, a coiled portion of bone tamp 36 is outside of cannula 44 in the original state and the remaining portion of bone tamp 36 is inside the cannula in a modified or ready constrained shape. Bone tamp 36 can be retracted back into cannula 44 and back into the constrained shape as illustrated in FIG. 5 or further ejected from the cannula to assume its original shape.

In one embodiment, opening 46 and lumen 50 of the cannula 44 have a complementary or generally similar cross-sectional shape as bone tamp 36, which aids in deploying the bone tamp in the desired orientation. In the embodiment shown, bone tamp 36 can be advanced or retracted through cannula 44 with the aid of a pushrod 52. Proximal end 54 of cannula 44 may have a knob or handle 56 or other structure for ease of use and proximal end 58 of the pushrod 52 also may have a knob or handle 60 as well. Alternatively, bone tamp 36 can be advanced and retracted through cannula 44 by any suitable drive or gear mechanism.

FIGS. 7-12 illustrate an exemplary method of employing the bone tamp 36 to form a channel within the cancellous bone tissue of a vertebral body. This is, of course, not the only procedure in which the bone tamp may be employed. FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a vertebra 62. As generally described above, vertebral body 70 of vertebra 62 includes cancellous bone tissue 68 surrounded by cortical rim 63. The distal end portion 64 of a deployment cannula 66 is inserted into the cancellous bone 68 of vertebral body 70 through a percutaneous transpedicular access port 72. Portions of vertebra 62 shown in FIGS. 7-9 have been broken way to show the location of the distal end portion of the cannula and the bone tamp within the cancellous bone of the vertebral body.

The transpedicular access port 72 can be made by using standard percutaneous transpedicular techniques that are well known in the art. Typically, such standard techniques include the use of minimally invasive vertebral body access instruments, such as trocars, access needles and working cannulas. If a working cannula is used, the working cannula is inserted into the transpedicular access port 72 and deployment cannula 66 is inserted into the vertebra 62 through the working cannula. Depending on the particular procedure, the deployment cannula can also be inserted into the cancellous bone of the vertebral body through other approaches as well, such as from lateral or anterior approaches.

In the illustrated embodiment, the distal end portion 64 of the deployment cannula 66 is centrally positioned within the vertebral body 70. However, the deployment cannula may be positioned at other locations depending on the desired application. Once deployment cannula 66 is in the desired position within the vertebral body 70, bone tamp 36, in its constrained or generally linear configuration, is advanced through deployment cannula 66 and out of opening 74 in distal end portion 64 of deployment cannula 66, as shown in FIG. 8. In this embodiment, opening 74 comprises an opening in the side of distal end portion 64 of deployment cannula 66.

Upon exiting deployment cannula 66, the external force constraining bone tamp 36 in the generally linear configuration is removed and the bone tamp, due to its shape retention characteristics, begins to substantially revert or self-form into its initial or original helical or coiled shape. Thus, the deployed configuration of bone tamp 36 is substantially the same as its initial or original configuration.

Referring to FIGS. 9 and 10, as bone tamp 36 advances out of the distal end portion 64 of deployment cannula 66, bone tamp 36, due to its mechanical strength and shape retention characteristics, penetrates and transverses through the relatively spongy cancellous bone to create a cylindrical or helically shaped channel or passageway therethrough. In the embodiment shown, the distal end portion 76 of bone tamp 36 has a generally blunted end. In alternative embodiments, distal end portion 76 can have other configurations, such as for example, pointed and sharp surfaces, which aid the bone tamp in penetrating and traversing through the bone tissue.

As shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, the individual loops or windings 40 of bone tamp 36 stack-up one adjacent to the other to create a generally cylindrical structure having a resident volume 42 filled with cancellous bone. Specifically, bone tamp 36 winds through cancellous bone 68 of vertebral body 70 so that undisturbed cancellous bone 78 is located within the resident volume 42. Moreover, depending on the desired application, each winding 40 may be in contact with the adjacent windings or windings 40 may be spaced apart, or bone tamp 36 may contain a combination of touching and spaced apart windings 40.

The deployment of bone tamp 36 can be monitored by fluoroscopic imaging or any other suitable type imaging to help ensure that the bone tamp is forming the desired channel for the particular procedure. Monitoring the deployment of the bone tamp provides several benefits, such as, ensuring the bone tamp is being deployed along the desired path and in the desired orientation.

After the desired portion of bone tamp 36 has been deployed, i.e., a sufficient length of the bone tamp has been deployed to create a channel of the desired size, bone tamp 36 may be retracted from cancellous bone 68 of vertebral body 70 and back into deployment cannula 66. As bone tamp 36 is retracted into the deployment cannula 66, the cannula again applies an external force on the bone tamp and the bone tamp is forced into its generally linear modified or ready configuration. After bone tamp 36 has been fully or substantially retracted into deployment cannula 66, the bone tamp and deployment cannula are withdrawn from the vertebra. As shown in FIGS. 11 and 12, withdrawing bone tamp 36 from the vertebral body 70 leaves a generally cylindrical or helical shaped passageway channel 80 within cancellous bone 68.

As mentioned above, the above described bone tamp and methods of use thereof are not limited to the treatment of vertebral bone tissue and can be used to treat bone tissue in other areas of the body as well. Additionally, the bone tamp can be used in conjunction with a variety of different procedures, such as for example, in a procedure involving interdigitation of bone filler material with bone tissue. One such interdigitation procedure for treating vertebral bodies is illustrated in FIGS. 13 and 14.

FIG. 13 illustrates a top cross-sectional view of vertebra 62 after a channel 80 has been created in the cancellous bone 68 of the vertebral body 70 using the bone tamp and methods described herein. After channel 80 has been created in cancellous bone 68, a distal end portion 82 of a bone filler injection needle 84 is inserted into vertebral body 70 to access channel 80. Distal end portion 82 of the bone filler injection needle 84 can be inserted through the same transpedicular access port that was created to insert the bone tamp. Alternatively, distal end portion 82 of the bone filler injection needle 84 can be inserted through a second or different access port, such as a lateral or anterior access port. Moreover, the positioning of distal end portion 82 of the injection needle 84 can be monitored using fluoroscopy to ensure proper positioning of the needle.

Once the injection needle 84 is in the desired position, bone filler material or flowable material 86 may be injected into the channel 80, as shown in FIG. 13. As the bone filler material 86 progresses through the channel 68, the bone filler material also begins to interdigitate with the spongy or porous cancellous bone tissue 68. In other words, the bone filler material migrates or seeps into and through the pores and around the trabeculae of the spongy cancellous bone as illustrated in FIG. 14. A variety of factors contribute to amount of interdigitation and such factors can be controlled by a surgeon to achieve a desired result. Such factors can include, but are not limited to, the size of the channel created in the bone tissue, the viscosity and volume of bone filler material injected, the curing rate of the bone filler material and the amount of injection pressure applied during injection of the bone filler material. After the bone filler material has cured, it is contemplated that it will aid in stabilizing and supporting the cancellous bone and surrounding cortical bone, thereby reducing the risk of collapse or fracture while maintaining the original cancellous bone intact and avoiding the compaction of the bone and creation of a cavity as required in Kyphoplasty.

It will be understood that the embodiments of the present disclosure which have been described are illustrative of some of the applications of the principles of the present invention. Numerous modifications may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention, including those combinations of features that are individually disclosed or claimed herein.

Schaller, Laurent, Golden, Steven

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///////////
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